Type 2 diabetes, once called non-insulin dependant diabetes or adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 90% to 95% of the 13 million men with diabetes.
Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes produce insulin; however, the insulin their pancreas secretes is either not enough or the body is unable to recognize the insulin and use it properly. This is called insulin resistance. When there isn't enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, sugar (glucose) can't get into the body's cells to be used for fuel. When sugar builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body's cells are not able to function properly. Other problems associated with the build up of sugar in the blood include:
Andrea Kolligian has learned that she's likely to get well-meaning comments if she eats a donut.
"Can you eat that? Are you sure you can eat that?" a friend or coworker will ask.
Kolligian, an administrative assistant at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when she was a teenager, and has been taking insulin ever since. But like many people with type I diabetes, she's learned that the growing prevalence of the type 2 form of the disease, which is often...
Dehydration. The build up of sugar in the blood can cause an increase in urination (to try to clear the sugar from the body). When the kidneys lose the sugar through the urine, a large amount of water is also lost, causing dehydration.
Hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma. When a person with type 2 diabetes becomes severely dehydrated and is not able to drink enough fluids to make up for the fluid losses, they may develop this life-threatening complication.
Damage to the body. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood may damage the nerves and small blood vessels of the eyes, kidneys, and heart and predispose a person to atherosclerosis (hardening) of the large arteries that can cause heart attack and stroke.
Who Gets Type 2 Diabetes?
Anyone can get type 2 diabetes. However, those at highest risk for the disease are those who are obese or overweight, women who have had gestational diabetes, people with family members who have type 2 diabetes and people who have metabolic syndrome (a cluster of problems that include high cholesterol, high triglycerides, low good 'HDL' cholesterol and a high bad 'LDL' cholesterol, and high blood pressure). In addition, older people are more susceptible to developing the disease since aging makes the body less tolerant of sugars.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?
Although it is more common than type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is less well understood. It is likely caused by multiple factors and not a single problem.
Type 2 diabetes can run in families, but the exact nature of how it's inherited or the identity of a single genetic factor is not known.
What Are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes vary from person to person but may include:
Increased hunger (especially after eating).
Nausea and occasionally vomiting.
Fatigue (weak, tired feeling).
Numbness or tingling of the hands or feet.
Frequent infections of the skin or urinary tract.
Rarely, a person may be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after presenting to the hospital in a diabetic coma.
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