Exercise and Diabetes: Best Bets
Blood Sugar Control May Benefit Most From Aerobic Exercise and Weight Training
Sept. 17, 2007 -- Got type 2 diabetes? Your workout may do more than trim
your waistline -- it could also improve your blood sugar control.
A new Canadian study shows that people with type 2 diabetes who began
exercising developed better blood sugar control, especially if they got aerobic
exercise and lifted weights.
Doctors should prescribe exercise to all type 2 diabetes patients who are
healthy enough to work out, states an editorial published with the study in the
Annals of Internal Medicine.
(If you are living with type 2 diabetes, do you
exercise regularly? Talk about it on WebMD's Diabetes Type 2 Support
Group message board.)
Exercise and Diabetes
The new Canadian study on exercise and diabetes included 251 adults with
type 2 diabetes.
On average, they were in their early 50s(age range: 39-70) with an obese
BMI (body mass index) of 35. None was taking insulin and none was
First, the patients got checkups. That's always a wise thing to do before
starting an exercise program, even for people who don't have diabetes.
Having been medically approved for the study, all patients got a modest
amount of supervised exercise for a month, just to make sure they could stick
with an exercise plan.
After that first month, the researchers split participants into four
- Aerobic exercise only
- Resistance training only
- Aerobic exercise and resistance training
- No assigned exercise
The exercise groups worked out three times per week at a gym (with their
expenses paid by the researchers).
For aerobic exercise, participants used a stationary bike or treadmill,
gradually lengthening their workouts from 15 minutes to 45 minutes. For
resistance training, they performed seven exercises using weight machines,
eventually doing two to three sets of each exercise.
Patients assigned to aerobic exercise and weight training did the full
aerobic workout and the full resistance training workout, three times per
The researchers -- who included the University of Calgary's Ronald Sigal,
MD, MPH -- didn't ask the participants to try to lose weight or to diet.
Reaping the Benefits
Participants followed their assigned workouts for 22 weeks.
All three exercise groups improved their blood sugar control based on their
hemoglobin A1c level, which indicates blood sugar control over the previous two
to three months.
People who got aerobic exercise and also lifted weights had the biggest
improvement in hemoglobin A1c. Not surprisingly, not exercising yielded no
improvements in hemoglobin A1c.
The bottom line: For the biggest benefit, get aerobic exercise and
resistance training. If you can't manage both, at least do one or the other, as
each is better than doing nothing.
If the benefits of exercise for type 2 diabetes patients could be captured
in a pill, diabetes experts would be quick to prescribe that pill, states the
editorial published with the study.
"Failing to prescribe exercise to patients with diabetes is simply
unacceptable practice," write the editorialists, who included William
Kraus, MD, of Duke University Medical Center.